Menopause; it can be defined as having been cut for at least 1 year and losing the ability of ovaries to produce eggs. Menopause occurs at any age between the ages of 40-58, but is on average around 51 years old.
On the basis of menopause, the nature of the woman is a physiological condition. In the pre-menopausal period called perimenopause there is a significant decrease in hormone release from ovaries. If menopause occurs before the age of 40, premature menopause (early menopause) is called.
Premature menopause may occur naturally, depending on the following situations:
- Having an early menopause story in the family
- Autoimmune diseases
- Disorders of X chromosome
- Medical treatments (pelvic surgery, surgical removal of ovaries, chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy)
- Drugs causing decrease in blood estrogen levels
Because menopause is a physiological condition that occurs with increasing age; there are no risk factors that may cause menopause. However, it should be kept in mind that the most important factor that increases the risk of premature menopause is family history.
As menopause approaches, women are exposed to many physical and mental symptoms. These symptoms include:
- Irregular menstruation
- Hot press and night sweats
- Sleep disorder and insomnia
- Drying the skin
- Vaginal dryness and painful sexual intercourse
- Concentration defect
- Weight loss
- Sexual reluctance
- Difficulty urinating
- Joint pain
- Early waking in the morning
First, your doctor will make a detailed questioning and gynecological examination about your complaints. At the same time pap smear and some blood tests need to be done. Menopause diagnosis is usually; can be placed in women with regular menstrual period with a tortuous period story of 1 year or longer. Especially in women who have undergone hysterectomy, menstruation can be diagnosed by looking at caloric FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) levels for women to have menstrual periods or to have already irregular menstrual patterns. When the FSH level is above 40, it is a menopause indicator.
In fact, menopause is a natural process and does not require treatment. However, menopause may require treatment in terms of symptoms and illnesses due to low estrogen levels. These include vaginal dryness, hot pressures, and osteoporosis (bone erosion).
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
There are many different hormone preparations prepared for use in menopause.
- According to the types of hormones they contain:
- Natural, synthetic and vegetable estrogens and progesterones
- Preparations containing estrogen, progesterone or both
- Preparations containing androgen hormone in small doses can be classified as
A different classification can also be made according to the types of preparations:
- Prepared adhesives
- Vaginal tablets
- Pellets placed in the skin
Numerous studies have shown that; In the long-term use of HRT for 5 years, the profit-loss ratio increases in favor of the loss. However, these results suggest that the preparations containing conjugated estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate belong to studies and the preparations containing estradiol and natural progesterone have lower risk. Another point to note is; It is time to use HRT. It is stated that the combined use of HRT in the early periods of menopause (especially around 50 years) carries less risk than the use in later ages.
Excess consumption of food containing phytoestrogen (ie, plant estrogen) may be beneficial. Phytoestrogens are known to carry less risk than HRT. Phytoestrogens; There are also capsule forms such as those found in foods such as soybean meal.
It is necessary to pay careful attention to healthy eating during the menopause period. This not only allows the woman to feel better about her, but also reduces the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis and some types of cancer. Diets containing low-fat, abundant vegetables and fruits and also rich in calcium and vitamin D are required to be fed.
Caffeine and alcohol
Cutting or reducing caffeine and alcohol intake reduces symptoms such as forgetfulness, anxiety, and also prevents calcium loss.
The release of cigarette reduces the risk of heart disease, early menopause and osteoporosis.
Regular exercise alleviates hot flashes. In addition, exercise, such as walking, stair climbing and hoisting, strengthen the bones and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
It is useful for menopausal symptoms, especially anxiety and tension. Deep breathing exercises, massage, yoga